In the Various concepts that have been filed as provisional filed as provisional patent applications.

Chemical Rockets are limited by the underlying chemical reaction. Chemical bound energy is converted into thermal energy and then into kinetic energy (Figure 1). energy (Figure 1). In the process, the energy is partially radiated (thermal radiation), or unintentionally converted into friction. Also currents occur transverse to the direction of thrust. After deduction of energetic losses, typically 40-70% of the applied (chemically bound energy supplied) is available for the actual thrust of the actual thrust of rocket engines.

Chemisches Raketentriebwerk - Energiemodell
Figure 1: Chemical rocket engine - energy model

Catalysts can exert an influence on chemical processes. In general, the the chemical industry, processes with catalysts are already catalysts in order to increase the economy, energy efficiency and yield per reaction (approx. over 80% of chemical processes with an processes with an increasing tendency). According to current knowledge catalysts mainly reduce the required activation energy by bridging the bonds in the reaction partners. reaction partners. The development and optimization of catalysts is a future field of technology that has not yet been fully exploited.

In particular catalysts can be uased to advantage in the newer air-breathing propulsion concepts can be used to advantage - such as in ramjets and scramjets. Short of fuel or air mass flow speak for the use of catalysts. the use of catalysts. The use of catalysts represents possible optimization of oxidizer and fuel burnout (fuel). fuel (propellant).

In conventional rocket engines, the reaction is almost complete due to is almost complete through continuous optimization, but catalysts can also catalysts can also achieve large effects indirectly. These effects can replace thermochemical effects (e.g. explosive reaction). reaction). Further effects result from the equalization of combustion. Thus, the use of catalysts in aerospikes advanced nozzle concepts is advantageous to overcome thermal challenges. challenges. Also the constriction of the neck on conventional bell nozzles could be reduced or optimized. optimized. This would result in energy advantages would result. Due to the reduced temperature, the performance of turbopumps and the turbopumps and the fuel supply can be increased. With temperature, service life and strength are improved. improved.

The concept is referred to as the driver concept, since the chemical reaction of the reaction of the fuel is to be driven. The goal is to effective support of the siphon concept under the changing operating conditions. Even under reduced ambient temperature explosive conversion of e.g. hydrogen and oxygen (oxyhydrogen reaction) can be achieved. (oxyhydrogen reaction) can be achieved. This also applies to methane and oxygen or other reaction partners.
It different homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are explicitly discussed. are discussed.

Presentation Treiber Concept

Ignition Concept
Electromagnetic waves (e.g. microwaves) are able to penetrate certain materials with low materials (e.g. ceramics) with low loss. Certain materials can absorb the energy of electromagnetic waves in high concentrations waves (e.g. polar compounds with a high dielectric constant dielectric constant such as water, metals in general, ferromagnetic materials in particular). The aim of the concept is therefore to directed spatial ignition as possible. For example alternatives to thermo-chemistry are in prospect, e.g. by using the possibilities of microwaves with high flame velocities at reduced at a reduced temperature.
In the Ideally, this would result in further secondary effects or technology boosts. The concept is particularly interesting for air-breathing propulsion systems (e.g. ramjets, scramjets) to increase burnout and ignition in complex impact systems with radially and axially and axially dependent and dynamic pressure ratios. simplify. In advanced nozzle concepts such as. Aerospikes, the heat balance should be made feasible.

Presentation Ignition Concept

Process Concept
General the reaction rate and exit velocity are increased with increase of the combustion chamber temperature. This is often referred to as "thermo-chemistry". At the same time, however, the losses and the design effort required increase, since the combustion combustion chamber temperature cannot be increased at will.

In the process concept, the alternative possibilities for the use of physical use of physical-chemical measures to limit energy losses in chemical limit energy losses in chemical engines. The measures include electromagnetic waves (as ignition, stimulation and alignment in the combustion chamber), catalysts to accelerate the catalysts to accelerate the chemical reaction and reaction temperature - at the same time to be used as absorbers for electromagnetic waves, and metallic additives (triergol systems). (triergol systems). At the same time, these measures are also intended to fine turbulence in the combustion chamber should enable a more direct conversion of the chemical energy into kinetic energy. As a result combustion chambers and nozzles can be vigorously optimized or adapted. can be made.

Presentation Process Concept

At vertical launches by means of rockets, the co-acceleration of an oxidizer is required (oxygen - approx. 75% of the total launch mass). The payload fraction is limited to a maximum of approx. 4% percent of the of the total launch mass. The aim of the concept is to increase the payload capacity.

Alternative air-breathing propulsion systems are not yet applicable for vertical (e.g. ramjets or scramjets). These are either not powerful enough (e.g. turbines), or cannot be used because the take-off speed, they cannot be used for vertical takeoffs. In addition, the the density and velocity of the incoming air during the trajectory during the flight path makes the optimal use of air-breathing engines difficult. engines.

In order to To achieve an adapted propulsion concept, a combination of conventional and air-breathing of conventional and air-breathing engines is described. Through the thrust of a conventional engine, inflow is achieved or is achieved or increased via systems. In front of the air-breathing engine system, an additional and controlled inflow is to be made possible by a control system. controlled inflow is to be made possible by a guidance system. A control system adapts the system to the velocity and density of the incoming air. to the air flowing in.

Presentation of Heber Concept

Engine concept for launching and operating air-breathing engine systems (e.g. Ramjet engines)
Air-breathing Compared with conventional rockets, air-breathing engine systems are to be understood as fluidically open systems. Air-breathing engine systems (e.g. ramjet engines) generally require an incoming mass flow of air at high velocity in order to achieve positive net compression in the engine to generate positive net thrust.

Ramjet engines are air-breathing engines with subsonic combustion and are already suitable for operational use. They exploit the Ram effect of compressing rapidly of rapidly inflowing air in an engine geometry. Designed Ramjet engines are typically designed from about Mach 1.5 or Mach 2.5 to Mach 5-6. For this reason, these engines are generally not suitable for suitable for launching rockets.

At In particular, for ramjet engines, for example, an additional injection of an oxidizer for of an oxidizer for take-off purposes, or continued operation at increased altitudes. There are already development trials and published patents.

A possible adjustment device for the additional injection of an oxidizer of an oxidizer in the air-breathing engine offers the possibility of a higher a higher injection pressure with less flow resistance and to pressure with less flow resistance, and to reduce the flow resistance of the additional of the additional injection itself when control mode is reached. This could, for example Ramjet engines could be used more effectively for the lower stage of a vertical rocket launch. The concept can possibly be used for an Extension of the lifter concept can be used.

Presentation Auxiliary Injection Engine Concept

Adaptive engine concept
Air-breathing engines (e.g. ramjets) are generally designed for only a very limited operating range. The operating range may be limited by a specific approach velocity or flight altitude. This results in requirements for the geometry and control of the engines. In contrast, control for extended working ranges is relatively costly, complex and can lead to further disadvantages for efficiency. Additional mechanical control of the engine geometry may result in high weight (e.g., due to powerful hydraulics).

In the following, an alternative to mechanical control by means of "volumetric" / fluidic control is presented. In the concept for an adaptive engine geometry (also structural concept), a system according to the invention is registered consisting of a few simple, light and inexpensive components. These components are a "volumetric basic structure," deck structure and, if necessary, composite structure.

The "volumetric base structure" can be formed, for example, of flexible or movable cushions, or chambers (e.g. heavy duty cushions).

The cover structure can be made, for example, of metal or ceramic fibers, or composites. These are efficient and flexible. Mats, nets, fabrics or fleece can be used for this purpose. Layers for thermal insulation or cooling can also be integrated.

To allow for structures that are as flexible as possible, composite structures can be used by means of frictional locking, if necessary.

The objective of the invention is the powerful extension of the working range of thrusters, ideally the conversion of a subsonic ramjet into a ramjet, or a ramjet with an extended working range. This could, for example, enable vertical takeoff for ascent to low Earth orbit using air-breathing thrusters. In addition, there are many possibilities for the design of adaptive structures, e.g., to modify aerodynamic flows on outer contours. Here, stalls can be prevented if necessary or boundary layer flows can be designed in an energy-efficient manner.

Presentation of adaptive engine concept

Scramjet - Engine Concept
Scramjet engines (Supercombustion Ramjet) engines burn in the supersonic range and are being and are being researched for approach speeds above Mach 5. Test flights have demonstrated the principle of operation, but no viable engine is currently currently no viable engine is officially in service.

Scramjet engines (Supercombustion Ramjet) engines burn in the supersonic range and are engine concept, an advanced multiple-flow principle, such as that used in e.g. in turbofan engines, is transferred to a scramjet. engine. The aim is to increase the net thrust and to enlarge possible combustion chamber combustion chamber geometries can be enlarged. Further measures are aimed at to improve the heat balance. For ignition in the chamber is an innovative combination of microwaves and metal metal particles is planned. This ignition system avoids aerodynamic losses and adapts the ignition to the complex pressure shocks. adapted. and are being researched for approach speeds above Mach 5. Test flights have demonstrated the principle of operation, but no viable engine is currently currently no viable engine is officially in service.

Presentation Scramjet Concept