FEASIBILITIES - STATE OF THE ART


1. Catalysts - thermally effective use

It is sometimes claimed that catalysts can only reduce the activation energy and that this has no influence on the reaction temperature. However, this is wrong! It is also a baseless assertion that catalysts achieve only "caloric" effects (comparable to introduced "debris").

In principle, an influence of catalysts on the reaction temperature has already been proven (Figure 0)!

Evidence for effectiveness: https://idw-online.de/de/news4761
Figure 0:  Reduction of combustion temperature through catalysts (https://idw-online.de/de/news4761 dated 18/07/2021) in german

Translation with deepl - dated 18/07/2021:

"If the generation of toxic exhaust gases is to be prevented, a completely new type of combustion must be chosen: flameless, catalytic combustion. The non-plus-ultra of modern, low-emission heating technology is an innovative burner concept in which the natural gas-air mixture is no longer burned in a flame but is oxidized by a catalyst. The flameless burner was developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Freiburg [Germany] and has now been put into practice for the first time in a pilot application. All flame burners have the disadvantage that temperatures above 1200 degrees Celsius and reactions in the flame front produce nitrogen oxides and other air pollutants. Catalytic combustion eliminates these causes: The open flame is avoided and the temperature is pushed below 1000 degrees. The principle of catalytic combustion was discovered as early as the last century by Johann Wolfgang Doebereiner. The Jena chemistry professor developed a catalytic lighter as early as 1823. He recognized the catalytic effect of platinum metals. Platinum accelerates combustion without itself being consumed and lowers the reaction temperature. Hydrogen can be catalytically converted at catalytic conversion at room temperature. With methane, the the main component of natural gas, catalytic combustion does not begin until begins at 250 to 400 degrees Celsius. Preheating is therefore necessary. Autocatalysts therefore only start cleaning exhaust gases when they have they.have.reached.operating.temperature. Catalysis is so consistent catalysis has been used to purify exhaust gases from engines and power plants, it has not yet found its way into heating technology.
"Exhaust gas catalysts are designed to eliminate low hydrocarbon fractions in an exhaust gas to be fully converted. High power densities, such as those required for a heating appliance, require a correspondingly high fuel concentration. This would lead to a high thermal load and thus to the destruction of the catalyst. catalyst," says Dr. Alexander Schuler, describing the developers' dilemma. The ISE scientists succeeded in a commercially available honeycomb catalyst with a cooling device in such a way that a catalytic catalytic burner with high performance was created. was created."

Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

1.1 State of the art in chemical engines: thermochemistry
(direct link to temperature)
For an idealized rocket with ideal gas as propellant with one-dimensional frictionless flow, the following applies to the exit velocity w:

Outlet velocity - ideal gas

Formula 5.35 for Idealized Rocket
E. Messerschmid et. al.: Raumfahrtsysteme, 978-3-642-12816-5


W - exit velocity
T0 - Combustion chamber temperature
P - Pressure
P0 - Combustion chamber pressure
R - Gas constant
ϰ - Adiabatic exponent (here isentropic exponent because reversible)

1.2 Conclusion

  • thermodynamic change of state with resulting exit velocity for isentropic Changes of state
  • besides the temperature also pressures are also included. The temperature is only an influencing parameter
  • the formula is not valid for preliminary energetic conversion of the chemically bound energy into thermal energy, but captures the thermodynamic change of state of the thermal energy into kinetic energy (or usable thrust) - often a "sufficient simplification"
  • the energetic losses in the engine due to higher temperatures and lossy thermodynamic thermodynamic change of state are not shown here.
2. New in the project: circumvention of temperature binding by increasing the reaction speed (driver concept)

2.1 analytical justification (state of knowledge):

  • Catalyst reduces activation energy and can accelerate the reaction (see supplements to the RGT rule - reaction rate-temperature rule)
  • Reaction enthalpy is not changed by catalyst does not change, i.e. the effective energy gain/ -loss of response
  • increasing reaction rates can influence the thermodynamic change of state, i.e. higher reaction rates mean a steeper increase in the p-V state diagram, i.e. the pressure increase is increased with the constant energetic gain
  • Conversely, the temperature must must decrease, since the enthalpy (or reaction enthalpy) is formed from the sum of the temperature and pressure
*to explain: The Enthalpy of a thermodynamic system is the sum of internal energy (heat and work) and product of pressure and volume of the system [Source: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enthalpie]


2.2 Technical justification by Comparisons (analogues) and examples from practice

  • Internal combustion engines in vehicles: usually a considerable proportion of the fuel does not (!)
→ with the addition of catalysts higher conversion of the chemical output should also result in higher heat flows should result,
→ but in any case no Decrease in temperature
  • However, the temperature can actually be temperature can be lowered (Figure 1 - Figure 3).
Excerpt patent specification with highlighting
Figure 1: Patent specification US20050044778A1 - excerpt with highlighting

Excerpt patent specification with highlighting
Figure 2: Patent specification US20050044778A1 - excerpt

Excerpt patent specification with highlighting
Figure 3: Patent specification WO001995004119A1 - extract


10 Ignition concept

11 General justification for feasibility / resulting positive energy gain. 

  • universally applicable, also to increase the performance of turbopumps, for example
  • versatile use in air-breathing drives, resistances due to internals can be avoided
12 Technical justification by Comparisons (analogues) and examples from practice

  • increased flame velocity, if necessary doubling possible under certain boundary conditions in internal combustion engines (Fig. 4)
  • combustion as directed as possible, with probably reduced temperature (Figure 5 and Figure 6).
  • Consequently, higher proportion of usable thrust
Excerpt patent specification with highlighting
Figure 4: Patent specification DE 19802745 C2 dated 26.01.1998. "Microwave-technical ignition and combustion support device for a fuel engine" - excerpt - in german

Excerpt patent specification with highlighting
Figure 5: Patent specification DE 19802745 C2 dated 26.01.1998. "Microwave-technical ignition and combustion support device for a fuel engine" - excerpt - in german

Excerpt patent specification with highlighting
Figure 6: US 4,930,309 dated 03.11.1988 "GAS COMPRESSOR FOR JET ENGINE - Extract